library / Limonene

Limonene is a phytonutrient found in citrus fruits that encourages the body's production of detoxifying enzymes including glutathione.

Studies suggest that D-limonene alters the cellular signaling pathways inside cancer cells, causing apoptosis--or cell suicide. In animal studies, D-limonene has been shown to slow the growth of pancreatic, stomach, colon, skin, and liver cancers.


Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S.Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer.Biochem Pharmacol. 2006 Feb 23; [Epub ahead of print]. Crowell PL Prevention and therapy of cancer by dietary monoterpenes. J Nutr 1999 Mar;129(3):775S-778S. Grassmann J.Terpenoids as plant antioxidants.Vitam Horm. 2005;72:505-35.Tsuda H, Ohshima Y, Nomoto H, Fujita K, Matsuda E, Iigo M, Takasuka N, Moore MA.Cancer prevention by natural compounds.Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2004 Aug;19(4):245-63.Raphael TJ, Kuttan G.Effect of naturally occurring monoterpenes carvone, limonene and perillic acid in the inhibition of experimental lung metastasis induced by B16F-10 melanoma cells.J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Sep;22(3):419-24.Lu XG, Feng BA, Zhan LB, Yu ZH.D-limonene induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2003 Jul;25(4):325-7


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